Enterprises are realising how important it is to "know what they know"
and be able to make maximum use of the knowledge. This knowledge resides
in many different places such as: databases, knowledge bases, filing cabinets
and peoples' heads and are distributed right across the enterprise. All
too often one part of an enterprise repeats work of another part simply
because it is impossible to keep track of, and make use of, knowledge in
other parts. Enterprises need to know:
Most traditional company policies and controls focus on the tangible assets
of the company and leave unmanaged their important knowledge assets.
what their knowledge assets are;
how to manage and make use of these assets to get maximum return.
Success in an increasingly competitive marketplace depends critically
on the quality of knowledge which organisations apply to their key business
processes. For example the supply chain depends on knowledge of diverse
areas including raw materials, planning, manufacturing and distribution.
Likewise product development requires knowledge of consumer requirements,
new science, new technology, marketing etc.
The challenge of deploying the knowledge assets of an organisation to
create competitive advantage becomes more crucial as:
The marketplace is increasingly competitive and the rate of innovation
is rising, so that knowledge must evolve and be assimilated at an ever
Corporations are organising their businesses to be focused on creating
customer value. Staff functions are being reduced as are management structures.
There is a need to replace the informal knowledge management of the staff
function with formal methods in customer aligned business processes.
Competitive pressures are reducing the size of the workforce which holds
Knowledge takes time to experience and acquire. Employees have less and
less time for this.
There are trends for employees to retire earlier and for increasing mobility,
leading to loss of knowledge.
There is a need to manage increasing complexity as small operating companies
a re trans-national sourcing operations.
A change in strategic direction may result in the loss of knowledge
in a specific area. A subsequent reversal in policy may then lead to a
renewed requirement for this knowledge, but the employees with that knowledge
may no longer be there.
Knowledge assets are the knowledge regarding markets, products,
technologies and organisations, that a business owns or needs to own and
which enable its business processes to generate profits, add value, etc.
Knowledge management is not only about managing these knowledge assets
but managing the processes that act upon the assets. These processes include:
developing knowledge; preserving knowledge; using knowledge, and sharing
Therefore, Knowledge management involves the identification and
analysis of available and required knowledge assets and knowledge asset
related processes, and the subsequent planning and control of actions to
develop both the assets and the processes so as to fulfil organisational
Why is Knowledge Management
There are many problems associated with identifying these knowledge
assets and being able to use them and manage them in an efficient and cost-effective
manner. Enterprises need:
Knowledge engineering methods and tools have come a long way towards addressing
the use of a company's knowledge assets. They provide disciplined
approaches to designing and building knowledge-based applications. There
are tools to support the capture, modelling, validation, verification and
maintenance of the knowledge in these applications. However these tools
do not extend to supporting the processes for managing knowledge at all
levels within the organisation.
to have an enterprise-wide vocabulary to ensure that the knowledge is correctly
to be able to identify, model and explicitly represent their knowledge;
to share and re-use their knowledge among differing applications for various
types of users; this implies being able to share existing knowledge sources
and also future ones;
to create a culture that encourages knowledge sharing.
At the strategic level the organisation needs to be able to analyse
and plan its business in terms of the knowledge it currently has and the
knowledge it needs for future business processes. At the tactical level
the organisation is concerned with identifying and formalising existing
knowledge, acquiring new knowledge for future use, archiving it in organisational
memories and creating systems that enable effective and efficient application
of the knowledge within the organisation. At the operational level knowledge
is used in everyday practice by professional personnel who need access
to the right knowledge, at the right time, in the right location.
A Knowledge Management
The knowledge management framework we use was originally based on work
by van der Spek and de Hoog. It covers
identifying what knowledge assets a company possesses
Where is the knowledge asset?
What does it contain?
What is its use?
What form is it in?
How accessible is it?
analysing how the knowledge can add value
What are the opportunities for using the knowledge asset?
What would be the effect of its use?
What are the current obstacles to its use?
What would be its increased value to the company?
specifying what actions are necessary to achieve better usability &
How to plan the actions to use the knowledge asset?
How to enact actions?
How to monitor actions?
reviewing the use of the knowledge to ensure added value
Did the use of it produce the desired added value?
How can the knowledge asset be maintained for this use?
Did the use create new opportunities?
Techniques to Manage Knowledge
We believe that the knowledge modelling techniques that exist to support
the use of the knowledge, along with traditional business management techniques,
provide a starting point to manage the knowledge assets within a company.
Therefore the the techniques we employ for managing knowledge within the
organisation are drawn from these two distinct areas:
Our recommended approach is a multi-perspective modelling approach.
Several models need to be developed, each of which represents a different
perspective on the organisation which can be characterised as “How, What,
Who, Where, When and Why”
the techniques that have been used previously from business management,
for example, SWOT (Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats) analysis,
balanced scorecards (Kaplan, Robert S.; Norton, David P. (1996)), modelling
languages such as: IDEF (Process Flow and Object State Description Capture
Method, Mayer, R., Cullinane, T., de Witte, P., Knappernberger, W., Perakath,
B., & Wells, S. (1992)) and RADs (Role Activity Diagrams, Ould, M.
the knowledge techniques that have been used previously for the disciplined
development of knowledge-based applications (Benus, B. (1993) and Schreiber,
A. T., Akkermans, J. M., Anjewierden, A. A., De Hoog, R., Van De Velde,
W., & Wielinga, B. J. (1998)).
Knowledge Management Roadmaps
How the organisation carries out its business - modelling the business
What the processes manipulate - modelling the resources
Who carries out the processes - modelling capabilities, roles and authority
Where a process is carried out - modelling of the communication between
When a process is carried out - this specifies the control over processes
Knowledge Asset Road Maps highlight the critical knowledge assets required
by an organisation to meet market needs five to ten years in the future.
They are mechanisms enabling organisations to visualise their critical
knowledge assets, the relationships between these and the skills, competencies
and technologies required to meet future market demands. They allow:
The Road Map is a living document regularly updated and serves as a framework
for the monitoring of the knowledge management programme. The document
reflects the current state of the interrelationships between work in progress
and proposed for the future and the overall milestones and aims of the
programme. Our work on knowledge management road maps is more fully described
A., Filby, I. & Tate, A., 1998).
individual knowledge management actions to be defined and justified in
terms of their contribution to the overall aims.
effective communication of the work and progress on the programme to the
participants and observers.
management aids for those involved in carrying out the programme and measuring
more effective communication between users, researchers, technicians, managers
and directors involved in the various aspects of the programme.
sensible decisions to be taken on the opportunities for further exploiting
the results of the programme.
the identification of knowledge gaps that need to be filled.
IT Support for Knowledge Management
AIAI, at the University of Edinburgh is concerned with how specific
aspects of AI, namely modelling, ontologies and planning techniques can
support knowledge management. These techniques allow an integrated support
framework to be developed for knowledge management based on adaptive workflow
This short web-based presentation:
states what we understand the term knowledge management to mean;
describes the processes that an organisation has to put in place to undertake
this task effectively;
outlines how various AI techniques can contribute to the management;
and finally proposes that adaptive workflow provides the infrastructure
to integrate these different techniques.
Below are sites that include many references and links to electronic
Applications & Research
The international knowledge management
network site, some interesting news and information, it used to be
just an ftp site with position papers but it was updated to a web site
in summer '96. Established by CIBIT and the University of Amsterdam
The knowledge management forum site,
another interesting site that users can contribute their position papers
on the subject. It also has a good reference page with abstracts.
Knowledge management server
at the University of Texas at Austin - this has been re-vamped and is very
informative with a good publications page and case study pages.
Dr. Karl E. Sveiby knowledge management
web site at Queensland University of Technology - it references the "tango"
a non-computerised business simulation for knowledge management.
Knowledge Management web
site with alot of useful information.
Work carried out at AIAI on the Enterprise
Project providing a framework for enterprise modelling and integration.
Enterprise related work at other
A collaborative project involving the
NWAIAG and supported by the ERDF, SRB and DTI, which aims to address the
problems associated with Knowledge Management and provide help and support
for companies who want to manage this asset.
Report on work at George Washington University on OKAM
Organisational Knowledge Asset Management.
UCSF Knowledge Management's Web
server which lists some of the internal projects being undertaken at the
an experimental knowledge management project with a World Wide Web interface
that uses Netscape 3 or Internet Explore. It is being undertaken by the
Language Analysis & Knowledge Engineering (LAKE) Group Department of
Computer Science, University of Ottawa.
Oriented Description Environment) is a general purpose knowledge management
project intended for analysing, debugging, and delivering knowledge about
some domain. It is being undertaken by Artificial Intelligence Laboratory,
Department of Computer Science, University of Ottawa
There are very few tools providing a truly integrated
set of functions to support the tasks associated with knowledge management.
The following lists some tools that have been used to support various aspect
of managing knowledge:
PC PACK is a portable package
of integrated tools for requirements and knowledge engineering.
Clementine Data Mining
(or Knowledge Discovery) Software package from ISL
Miner another data mining tool this time from IBM
The Information Discovery
System (IDIS) a data mining tool from Information Discovery.
- object-oriented client/server tool with case-based retrieval of both
structured and unstructured information from Brightware
GrapeVINE - two versions
one for lotus notes and one for Netscape in which users can set up an interest
profile that identifies what is useful to them and so filter information.
Software - two products PKM (the Personal Knowledge Manager) and PDP
(the Personal Development Plan) both based on Lotus Notes.
TM Knowledge Management System - a Lotus Notes based system, the current
users are Andersen Consulting professionals.
IEEE Intelligent Systems Special Issue On Knowledge Management And Knowledge
Distribution Over The Internet; to be published Autumn, 1999.
Macintosh, A., Filby, I. and John Kingston; Knowledge Management Techniques:
Teaching & Dissemination Concepts; Journal of Human Computer Studies,
Special Issue on Organizational Memories & Knowledge Management, Academic
Press, to be published September/October 1999.
Journal of Human Computer Studies, Special Issue on Organizational Memories
& Knowledge Management, Academic Press, to be published September/October
"Knowledge Asset Road Maps"; Ann Macintosh, Ian Filby,
John Kingston, and Austin Tate; in Proceedings of The Second International
Conference on Practical Aspects of Knowledge Management (PAKM98), 29-30
October, 1998; Basel, Switzerland.
Proceedings of PAKM98
International Conference on the Practical Aspects of Knowledge Management,
29-30th October 1998, Basel, Switzerland
Interdisciplinary Workshop on Building, Maintaining, and Using Organizational
Memories (OM-98, Brighton, UK, held on August, 24th - 25th 1998.
of KAW'98 The Eleventh Workshop on Knowledge Acquisition, Modeling
and Management,Banff, Alberta,Canada held on Saturday 18th to Thursday
23rd April, 1998.
Journal of Universal Computer
Science (Special Issue on IT for Knowledge Management), 3 (8), 1997, Springer-Verlag.
(To be reprinted in: Borghoff, U.M. and Pareschi, R., (Eds.), Information
Technology for Knowledge Management. Springer-Verlag, 1998)
ARPA Knowledge Sharing Effort public
science references on managing knowledge creation.
Management Resource Center a good publications reference site
Karl M Wiig; books published and distributed by Schema Press, 5211 Vicksburg
Dr, Arlington, TX 76017; Fax (817) 478-1048; Email 71117,email@example.com
The 3 volumes are:
Volume 1; Knowledge Management Foundations, Thinking about thinking, How
people and organisations create, represent and use knowledge; ISBN 0-9638925-0-9
Volume 2; Knowledge Management, The central focus for intelligent-acting
organisations; ISBN 0-9638925-1-7
Volume 3; Knowledge Management methods, Practical approaches to managing
knowledge; ISBN 0-9638925-2-5
Summary of results of an AIAI 1994
survey describing the major computer-based projects being undertaken
to support the more effective use of corporate knowledge - now very dated
but still has some useful links.
Abecker, A., Bernardi, A., Hinkelmann, K., Kühn, O., & Sintek,
M. (1997). Towards a Well-Founded Technology for Organizational Memories,
in B.R. Gaines, & R. Uthurusamy (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence in
Knowledge Management, Papers from the 1997 AAAI Spring Symposium, Menlo
Park, AAAI Press.
Benus, B. (1993). Organisational modelling and Knowledge Management, Department
of Social Science Informatics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam.
Dieng, R., Corby, O., Giboin, A., & Ribière, M. (1998). Methods
and Tools for Corporate Knowledge Management. Proceedings of the 11th Banff
Workshop on Knowledge Acquisition, Modelling and Management, KAW’98, Banff,
Kaplan, Robert S.; Norton, David P. (1996). Balanced Scorecard: Translating
Strategy into; Harvard Business School Press Book; Product Number: 6513.
Kingston, J.K.C., Lydiard T., & Griffith, A., (1997). Multi-Perspective
Modelling of Air Campaign Planning; Proceedings of the International Joint
Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI '97), Nagoya, Japan.
Kühn, O. & Abecker, A. (1997). Corporate Memories for Knowledge
Management in Industrial Practice: Prospects and Challenges.
J.UCS, 3 No. 8 pp. 929-954.
Macintosh, A., Filby, I., Kingston, J., Tate, A., (1998). Knowledge Asset
Road Maps. Proceedings of The Second International Conference on Practical
Aspects of Knowledge Management (PAKM98); Basel, Switzerland.
Maurer, F. & Dellen, B. (1998). Concept for an Internet-based Process-Oriented
Knowledge Management Environment, in proceedings of the 11th Banff Workshop
on Knowledge Acquisition, Modelling and Management, KAW’98, Banff, Alberta,
Mayer, R., Cullinane, T., De Witte, P., Knappernberger, W., Perakath, B.,
& Wells, S. (1992) ICCE IDEF3 Process Description Capture Method Report,
(al/tr-1992-0057). Technical report, Air Force Systems Command, Wright-Pattersson
Air Force Base, Ohio.
Ould, M. (1993). Series of articles on Strim/RADs, in Iopener, the Journal
of the IOPT Club for the Introduction of Process technology; V1:5, V2:1&3.
Schreiber, A.Th., Wielinga, B.J., De Hoog, R. & Akkermans, J.M. (1994).
CommonKADS: A Comprehensive Methodology for KBS development, IEEE Expert
Schreiber, A. T., Akkermans, J. M., Anjewierden, A. A., De Hoog, R., Van
De Velde, W., & Wielinga, B. J. (1998). Engineering of Knowledge: The
CommonKADS Methodology. University of Amsterdam.
Stader J., (1996). Results of the Enterprise Project; Intelligent Systems
Integration Programme, Proceedings of Expert Systems '96, the 16th Annual
Conference of the British Computer Society Specialist Group on Expert Systems;
Wielinga, B. (1992) “The KADS Knowledge Modelling Approach”, In Proceedings
of the Japanese Knowledge Acquisition Workshop (JKAW’92).
Van Der Spek, R. & De Hoog, R. (1995). A Framework for Knowledge
Management Methodology pp 379-398 in Knowledge Management Methods: Practical
Approaches to Managing Knowledge. Vol. 3 of 3, Schema Press, Arlington,
Texas,. ISBN 0-9638925-2-5.
Van Der Spek, R. & Spijkervet, A. (1997). Knowledge Management: Dealing
Intelligently with Knowledge. Knowledge Management Network (CIBIT/CSC).
on Knowledge Management and Organizational Memories, Stockholm, Sweden,
31st July 1999.
ISMICK99 Sixth International
Symposium on the Management of Industrial and Corporate Knowledge, The
Netherlands, 15-17 November 1999.
Workshop on Knowledge
Management and Knowledge Distribution through the Internet at the KAW-99
(Twelfth Workshop on Knowledge Acquisition, Modeling, and Management)
Voyager Inn, Banff, Canada, October 16-22, 1999.
ES99 The Nineteenth SGES International
Conference on Knowledge Based Systems and Applied Artificial Intelligence,
Peterhouse College, Cambridge, UK
December 13th-15th 1999.
Knowledge to Business Processes, Workshop in the AAAI Spring Spring
Symposium Series 2000
Last updated 12th July 1999