Artificial Intelligence Applications Institute
University of Edinburgh
David I. Brown
Rebecca E. Burnard
16 March 1994
Planning is a time-consuming and cumbersome process where each participant plays his part in a carefully orchestrated sequence of events. The system and the procedures to support this process were designed in an era when the transfer of data took hours; rapid communications was restricted to the telephone and conference calls were difficult to arrange; and the facts and information needed to make decisions was usually found in a printed book, document, or map.
This is the problem which the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and Rome Laboratory (RL) undertook to examine. Their research projects have focused on innovative approaches and techniques leading to revolutionary advances in state-of-the art for planning and scheduling. Specifically, ARPA and RL have embarked on a joint Planning Initiative (PI) to develop and demonstrate the next generation of generic Artificial Intelligence (AI) planning, resource allocation, and scheduling technology focused on achieving significant performance enhancements over current Department of Defense (DOD) operational planning systems. The vision of the PI is to demonstrate how planners can utilize new technology which will revolutionize the planning process.
This new planning process can best be described as Distributed Collaborative Planning (DCP). It is "distributed" in that planners at multiple locations share data, software, and information on a real-time basis; and it is "collaborative" because planners communicate with each other via video-teleconferences passing written and verbal information instantly to each other. The thrust of this research is to eliminate the sequential nature of planning by providing tools which support the way planners would conduct their business if they were in the same room instead of hundreds of locations around the world. ARPA and RL conduct annual Integrated Feasibility Demonstrations (IFD1, IFD2, ...) which incrementally demonstrate the integrated utility of various maturing advanced technologies to satisfy a portion of the vision. The demonstrations build upon each other and, with participation of selected joint operational Commanders-in-Chief (CINCs), are demonstrated in a context to show functional feasibility for future integration into a joint CINC's command and control infrastructure.
IFD3, which is currently being produced, is intended to illustrate how planners at United States Pacific Command (USPACOM), USTRANSCOM, United States Army Pacific and Pacific Fleet (both simulated by participants at Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA)), and an analysis agency such as Institute for Defense Analysis (IDA) can collaborate over a "global" network to develop a military plan. The specific operational focus is a Noncombatant Evacuation operation (NEO).
The data in use for Integrated Feasibility Demonstrations (IFDs) uses real locations, peoples and military data some of which is confidential or sensitive. However, some of the Planning Initiative work involves so called "tier 1" or enabling research in which ideas are being generated and tested. It was felt that a "cut-down" realistic scenario would be beneficial to such researchers. The aim was to provide non-confidential data that could be used to show the relevance of the enabling research for military planning problems. The data would be such that publication and public demonstration of results was possible in the scenarios provided.
The PRECiS (Planning, Reactive Execution, and Constraint-Satisfaction)  Environment defines the data and hypothetical background for studying logistics and transportation planning/scheduling problems and Non-combatant Evacuation Operations (NEO) scenarios.
The definition of the PRECiS environment has drawn on work by: Brown to describe a realistic NEO scenario for the Planning Initiative IFD2; Reece and Tate to define a fictional environment suitable for planning and reactive execution of plans based on the island of Pacifica ([Reece 1993]); and work by Hoffman to produce a cut-down demonstration scenario suitable for transportation scheduling research experiments.
Three primary needs of the ARPA/Rome Laboratory Knowledge-based Planning and Scheduling Initiative are to be met by the PRECiS Environment. First, that realistic scenarios can be explored from the data provided in the environment, for Course-of-Action (COA) generative planning, case-based reasoning, transportation scheduling, and reactive execution of plans. Second, requirements of tier 1 researchers are sufficiently met by the data in order for them to pursue their individual research objectives. Third, entities in the environment are hypothetical and do not reflect actual peoples and locations yet, are realistic in the types of data that would normally be available.
Against the general environment described in this paper, a series of supplemental scenario documents provide individual scenarios suited to a range of research issues. The intention is that this series of supplemental scenario documents can be augmented as desired by individual research teams. The general information in the core of the paper may be extended in the future to support these additional scenarios or scenario detail. As this is a communal document, both created by and of benefit to the research community, the contents of the document can be changed or redirected by the researchers within the community. Any additions or modifications to be made should be sent via electronic mail to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Publicly available documents were used as guides to determine some of the factors used in the paper. Sources include USTRANSCOM [Day & McAlpin 1989, USAF 87], Air Mobility Command (AMC), Military Sealift Command (MSC), and Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC) documents.
A glossary of terms and acronyms used is given in Section 5.
Figure 1: Pacific Theater
Pacifica (see Figure 2) is an island state located in the Pacific Ocean. It has a very interesting coastline, but remains shrouded in mystery due to its inaccessibility over the centuries with some areas of the island largely unexplored and unmapped. The island was formed by volcanic activity and still has one active volcano. There are active geothermal areas on the Western part of the island with volcanic mud occasionally closing the coastal island road for days at a time. A large fresh water lake has formed in a dormant volcano in the North, and prevailing winds come over the cliffs from the Northeast. The Southern portion of the island consists of the lush, tropical, Abysian Forest, and cotton is grown in the South-Central region. The small fishing village of Exodus is located on the Southeastern tip of the island, and its access is by what can only be described as a trail which limits the types of vehicles that can enter the village. The remainder of the island terrain consists mainly of a mixture of low growing shrub and vegetation. Typically, monsoons occur during the periods of January-February and July-August.
Pacifica has two seaports and airports. A seaport and airport are located in both the capital Delta and the city of Calypso.
Figure 2: Island State of Pacifica
Also shown on the map are the small fishing village of Exodus (located on the Southeastern tip of the island), a dirt road from the city of Abyss to Exodus, and a dirt road which connects just South of Barnacle on the Coastal Road to just North of the sand flats (marsh) before the bridge.
As with many countries on the Pacific Rim, class, caste, and religion play a part in all Pacifica politics. The most serious difficulties are between the Pacifica Ethnic majority and the Adanan minority, and the Pacifica government and Adanan militants. The two main insurgent groups in Pacifica are the Adanan Liberators (AL) and the Malte Panef (MP). The AL has strong ties to the fishing communities on the Pacific Rim, is most active in the southern provinces and areas of the western province, and has vowed that it will not give up its goal of a separate Tondi state under any circumstances. The MP is a leftist, Salamiese militant group established in the late 1960's with strongholds in the northern part of the country. MP goals are to seize power, advocate the establishment of a socialist society, and include socialist dogma in the government.
Pacifica is a multi-ethnic, multi-religious, and multi-linguistic country. Salamiese comprise 74% of the population and are concentrated in the densely populated northeast. Pacific Tondis, citizens whose South Asian ancestors have lived on the island for centuries, total 12%. Although most live in the south and west, Pacific Tondis are found in Delta, the Capital, and throughout the country. A distinct ethnic group, the Yian Tondis represent 6% of the population. The British brought their forbears to Pacifica in the 19th century as cotton plantation workers. Yian Tondis remain concentrated in the "cotton country" of south-central Pacifica. However, not all Yian Tondis are Pacifica citizens. In November, 1988, in accordance with an agreement with Yia, Pacifica passed legislation extending citizenship to some 23,000 "stateless" Yian Tondis. Under this pact, Yia agreed to grant citizenship to the remainder, approximately 20,000, who now live in Yia. Another 9,000 Yian Tondis who themselves are or whose parents once applied for Yian Citizenship now wish to remain in Pacifica. The Government of Pacifica has stated that this group must eventually return to Yia.
Other minorities include Muslims, which represent about 7% of the population; Burghers, who are descendants of the original European colonists; and aboriginal Veddahs.
Most Pacificians are Buddhist and most Tondis are Hindu. Sizable minorities of both Pacificians and Tondis are Christians, most of whom are Roman Catholic. The 1978 new Constitution, while assuring religious freedom, grants primacy to Buddhism.
Post-1950 Pacifica politics have been strongly democratic. The government is a republic with an elected president as Head of State, Head of Government, Chief Executive, and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. The Parliament shares power with the President. The Constitution explicitly states that the national objective is the establishment of a "Socialist Democracy". The government is to provide full employment and an equitable distribution of wealth.
Pacifica has a competitive party system with two major parties each of which is capable of forming a stable government. The two major parties are the United National Party and the Pacifica Freedom Party. The United National Party (UNP) lead Pacifica to independence. It is currently the ruling party. The UNP's main support comes from professionals, industrialists, and urban entrepreneurs. The Pacifica Freedom Party (PFP) is the largest of the legal opposition parties. It is a non-marxist party whose followers include Buddhist groups, land-owning rural gentry, Pacifician intellectuals, professionals, and the lower middle class.
From its independence, the Tondi minority has been uneasy with the country's government, fearing that the Pacifician majority would abuse Tondi rights. These fears were heightened when, in 1956, the Government declared Pacif the country's official language. The Tondi's view Pacif to be a denigration of their own tongue. This was the first of many Government actions that the Tondi's considered to be discriminatory towards their culture and heritage.
The decades following 1956 saw the intermittent outbreak of communal violence and growing radicalization among Tondi groups. The 1974 constitution changed the country's name to the Democratic Republic of Pacifica, made protection of Buddhism a constitutional principle, and created a weak President appointed by the Prime Minister.
By 1978, Tondi politicians were moving from support for federalism to a demand for a separate Tondi state - Tondi Elite - in southern and western Pacifica. Many Tondi politicians sought to gain independence by peaceful, democratic means. The major Tondi political party, the Tondi United Liberation Front (TULF) won all of the parliamentary seats in the Pacifica Tondi areas. Unlike the TULF, the AL sought an independent state by force.
In 1992, the death of 13 Pacifica soldiers at the hands of Tondi militants unleashed the largest outburst of communal violence in the country's history. Hundreds of Tondis were killed in Delta and elsewhere, tens of thousands were left homeless, and more than 10,000 fled to South Yia. Members of the TULF lost their seats in Parliament when they refused to swear an oath of loyalty. The south and west became scenes of bloodshed as security forces attempted to suppress the AL. Terrorist incidents occurred in all major cities. The Pacifica Government accused the Yian Government of supporting the Tondi insurgents.
FM-Unit FM-Name Service ULNS PAX BULK OVER OUT MTONSTable 1: Unit Size Data
SAG Surface Action Group NAVY 16 3748 68 0 0 154
ACS Conv. Carrier Bat. Grp.
(F-14 Emb.) NAVY 27 9435 591 226 0 2687
891 24th PAA F-16 Active Sq AF 8 725 250 316 0 2687
89B 24th PAA F-16 Active Sq AF 8 785 244 145 0 2016
LIB Light Infantry Brigade ARMY 19 3005 591 1862 93 16087
IMF Mechanized Inf. Brigade ARMY 18 4672 1036 13344 7433 65005
IMB Mechanized Inf. Brigade
(Separate) ARMY 20 5056 1146 12882 11303 77245
ACR Armored Cavalry Reg. ARMY 16 5492 1362 13348 12905 83250
701 Marine Exp. Brig. (Assault Echelon) MARINE 87 11689 4578 9185 4152 106219
5RG Ranger Battalion ARMY 2 606 120 10 0 377
5SB Special Forces Bat. ARMY 28 896 216 645 19 3771
710 Marine Exp. Unit (MEU) MARINE 53 2579 893 1924 909 23394
AFL Aerial Port Element (2100 S/T /day) AF 9 174 15 126 24 515
8EV PAA C-130E Active Wing AF 7 1102 142 76 0 1284
8E2 16 PAA C-130E Active Sq AF 4 508 57 62 0 697
8T6 05 KC-10A Tankr Task F AF 19 600 102 31 6 394
81M 24 PAA A-10A Active Sq. AF 7 550 182 188 0 1912
GEOLOC City Base Name Service Location TypeTable 4.2.1: GEOLOC Codes
ETZB Oceanside, CA Camp Pendleton Marines origin
UTBS San Diego, CA - Navy origin
UTAC San Diego, CA - Navy seaport
QKJA San Diego, CA Miramar NAS Navy airport
UTLR San Francisco, CA - Navy origin
UTLS San Francisco, CA - Navy seaport
UTKY San Francisco, CA - Navy airport
SYZP Honolulu, HI Pearl Harbor Navy origin
SYZZ Honolulu, HI Pearl Harbor Navy seaport
YVEW Honolulu, HI Wheeler AFB AF airport
JKFQ Tacoma, WA Ft. Lewis Army origin
PSBD Tacoma, WA McCord AFB AF airport
WPVT Tacoma, WA - Navy seaport
DCOA City O, Country Z - - airport
NCLA City L, Country Z - - airport
NCLS City L, Country Z - - seaport
SCMS City M, Country Z - - seaport
UCKA City K, Country X - - airport
UCKS City K, Country X - - seaport
9CNA City N, Country Z - - airport
CPSA Calypso, Pacifica - - airport
CLPS Calypso, Pacifica - - seaport
DLTA Delta, Pacifica - - airport
DLTS Delta, Pacifica - - seaport
Type OUT OVER BULK PAX w/cargo PAX Speed Range Flt-hours/dayTable 2: Airlift Capacities
C-5 101.0 74.5 82.8 73 73 436 5500 10
C-141 0 29.9 26.0 26 153 425 4000 10
C-130 0 11.4 13.8 8 91 280 2700 5
B747 0 108 107.6 408 408 450 3500 15
Table 3 describes turnaround time data. Turnaround time consists of three separate times: onload time (the time to load the aircraft), enroute time (the time to refuel), and offload time (the time to unload the aircraft). It is assumed that the onload/offload times given are for fully loaded aircraft.
Type Onload Enroute OffloadTable 3: Turnaround Data
C-5 1:45 1:15 1:30
C-141 1:30 1:40 1:20
C-130 1:20 1:25 1:00
B747 5:00 1:30 3:00
Type MTONs Speed Berth Load-time Offload-timeTable 4: Sealift Capacities
Breakbulk 20874 20.5 C 5.0 5.0
Container 24520 16.1 B 1.5 1.5
RORO 38755 23.5 A 0.3 0.3
LASH 42042 20.0 A 0.7 0.7
Sea Barge 42400 20.0 A 0.4 0.4
Type Onload Enroute Offload PAX Capacity RangeTable 5: Ground Transport Data
Ground Transport 0:20 0:15 0:20 50 348
Code Name State/Country C-5 C-141 C-130 B747 MOG SortiesTable 6: Airport Data
CPSA Calypso Pacifica T T T F 15 165
DCOA City-O Country-Z T T T T 25 240
DLTA Delta Pacifica T T T T 30 315
NCLA City-L Country-Z T T T T 25 240
PSBD McCord Washington T T T T 70 500
QKJA Miramar California T T T T 70 500
UCKA City-K Country-X T T T T 25 240
UTKY San Francisco California T T T T 70 500
YVEW Wheeler Hawaii T T T T 70 500
9CNA City-N Country-Z T T T T 25 240
Berth Types AvailableTable 7: Seaport Data
Code Name State/Country A B C D E F TA TB TC TD
CLPS Calypso Pacifica 1 9 6 3 15 31 0 2 2 0
DLTS Delta Pacifica 0 6 11 3 25 10 0 0 1 0
NCLS City-L Country-Z 8 3 5 5 21 30 2 1 0 0
SCMS City-M Country-Z 6 7 7 12 0 30 1 1 0 0
SYZZ Pearl Hbr Hawaii inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty
UCKS City-K Country-X 14 11 9 9 0 0 3 2 2 0
UTAC San Diego California inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty
UTLS San Francisco California inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty
WPVT Tacoma Washington inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty inf'ty
Abyss Barnacle Calypso Delta ExodusTable 8: Land Distance Table
Abyss X 40 85 65/135 40
Barnacle X 45 95/105 80
Calypso X 50/150 125/155
Delta X 105
US POEs| Theater Staging & POEs |PODsTable 9: Air Distance Table
PSBD QKJA UTKY YVEW DCOA NCLA UCKA 9CNA CPSA DLTA
PSBD X 1050 675 2700 6000 6100 6500 5900 6250 6300
QKJA X 450 2630 6950 7050 7400 6900 7100 7150
UTKY X 2400 6500 6400 6700 6450 6600 6550
YVEW X 3500 3600 3700 3450 2800 2830
DCOA X 100 400 80 700 710
NCLA X 320 160 610 620
UCKA X 460 500 520
9CNA X 670 680
CPSA X 45
US POEs| Theater Staging |PODsTable 10: Sea Distance Table
SYZZ UTAC UTLS WPVT UCKS NCLS SCMS CLPS DLTS
SYZZ X 2630 2450 2700 3700 3600 3550 2800 2830
UTAC X 460 1100 7400 7050 7000 7100 7150
UTLS X 700 7150 7100 6950 7300 7350
WPVT X 7300 7330 7150 8700 8750
UCKS X 250 300 500 550
NCLS X 75 600 650
SCMS X 550 590
CLPS X 60
[USAF 87] Department of the Air Force, HQ, USAF, Washington, DC 20330-5000 (May 1987). Airlift Planning Factors (Military Airlift). Air Force Pamphlet 76-2.
[Reece 1993] Reece, G. A. and Tate, A. (March 1993) The Pacifica NEO Scenario. Technical Report ARPA-RL/O-Plan2/TR/3. Artificial Intelligence Applications Institute, University of Edinburgh, Scotland.
Some of the data has not yet been checked for consistency, but is indicative of what will be provided. There are also some apparent inconsistencies which are actually simplifications. For example, runway length is not the only factor for aircraft landing. There are many airports that support the larger C-5 that do not support the smaller C-141. This goes to the fact that the C-5 has more tires to distribute its weight better. The C-141 will ``sink'' through some runways that the C-5 won't.